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Breastfeeding Advisor

2. Classification of Sucking and swallowing disorders

The table combined with etiology and dysfunction, is shown below.

1.Immaturity Low birth weight infant Preterm infant These conditions are not real "problems" but to be considered. Because of the prematurity of coordination between sucking, swallowing and respiration, they would have some risk of aspiration.
2.Anatomical and structural problems Cleft lip
Cleft palate
Micrognathia
Structural defect of lips, pharynx, larynx and esophagus could cause Sucking and swallowing disorders. That include congenital conditions (cleft lips/palate, micrognathia) and acquired illness such as tumors.
3.Problems of the central and peripheral nervous system, and muscles Cerebral Palsy, Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, Myotonic dystrophy, Werdnig-Hoffmann disease Dysfunctions of the cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum, spinal cord, peripheral nervous and muscles could cause the impairment of the coordination between sucking, swallowing and breathing. Also those dysfunctions could involve excessive increase and decrease in involuntary and voluntary muscle movement. All of these problems could lead Sucking and swallowing disorders.
4.Dysfunction of pharynx and esophagus Laryngomalacia Esophageal achalasia Dysfunctions in the pharyngeal and esophageal motor abilities could cause the difficulties of the coordinated movements.
5.Deterioration of general condition Congenital heart disease
Respiratory disease
Systemic infection
Deterioration of the general health status, caused by various diseases leads to Sucking and swallowing disorders.
Even nasal obstruction could cause respiratory disturbance and sucking and swallowing disorders.
6.Psychological problems Tubal feeding dependence Problems of appetite and mental issues such as anorexia, dependence of gavage feeding with refusal of oral feeding, and refusal of infant formula would cause sucking and swallowing difficulties.
7.Others Stomatitis
Dry mouth
Painful lesion such as stomatitis could cause Sucking and swallowing disorders.
Dryness of mouth due to fever or the side effects of medications could cause Sucking and swallowing disorders.

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